Aşağıda, özel bir çalışma için yaptığım “Türkiye’deki İK Trendleri (2008)” adlı yazımı bulabilirsiniz.
Government is expected to bring additional incentives for promoting employment of young educated workforce. According to the Worls Bank’s Labor Market Study (2006), a rapid demographic transition has temporarily raised population growth and skewed the age structure toward the young. Unemployment rates are especially high for educated young people. (The economy may not be generating jobs that can absorb educated young, but also the educated young may not be well-suited to the job market.) Older workers appear to find jobs more readily than younger workers, independent of education level.
Government is expected to introduce new legislations for enforcing flexibility in labor market, in long term, in order to minimize informal economy and improve employment rate (by reducing severance requirements, flexing restrictions on fixed-term working, limiting working hours…etc)
Severance pay in Turkey is much higher than the OECD or European average. A worker with 20 years of service in Turkey is entitled to 20 months compensation, compared to 6 months for OECD countries, 4 months for Europe and Central Asia countries, and 10 months for middle-income countries. Due to high severance costs, firms try to avoid hiring labor or find other ways to avoid paying the costs of firing, such as using informal workers when the economic conditions are volatile. For this reason, variation in number of workers, as opposed to variation in working hours, is very low.
Average working hours in Turkey are far above the average of both OECD countries and emerging countries. This suggests that severance requirements and favorable tax treatment of overtime work are discouraging creation of new jobs.
Turkey has a large informal economy. Approximately one in three workers in urban areas and three in four in rural areas are not registered with the social security institutions. High severance cost, high ration of minimum wage with respect to average wage, high employment taxes enforces the informal economy.
Turkey is almost alone in the OECD in having restrictions on fixed-term workers and temporary work agencies. Turkey and Greece allow hiring of fixed-term workers only when “objective” reasons exist, such as for seasonal work, for a specific project, or to replace a temporarily absent worker. Legally opening up the use of fixedterm contracting risks the possibility that employers will avoid the obligations of permanent contracts. However, it can also have the positive impact of shifting workers who are now informally employed into formal contracted positions. The 2003 Labor Code does allow private agencies to operate legally in labor market, but their presence is limited by restrictions on their activities. Since the use of temporary workers is reportedly common legalizing temporary work agencies will encourage a more formal labor market.
The focus of employment protection will shift from protecting jobs to protecting workers. Regulations that try to protect jobs, such as severance pay and restrictions on flexible work, benefit only those workers who already have jobs. In an increasingly competitive world, firms and workers need more flexible arrangements. Such flexibility increases the risks for workers, and it is important to have measures in place to protect workers—through unemployment insurance and measures to help them find new jobs (passive and active labor market measures). Workers would also benefit from measures to improve access to collective bargaining (in accordance with core ILO labor standards), job security and dispute resolution mechanisms.
Companies, in developed countries, are about to face a chronic labour shortage unlike any they have ever seen. According to the Deloitte Global Talent Survey, 2005, 76% of global companies already experiencing a moderate to high shortage of salaried staff. The Conference Board of Canada predicts a shortage of 1 million skilled workers by 2020. CIPD’s 2007 survey reports that 84% of 905 respondent organisations experienced difficulty in filling vacancies, up from 82% in the 2006 survey. This talent crisis is expected to last for decades since the main reason is ageing populations and declining birth rates. Companies of every shape and size will struggle just to maintain their current market position — much less grow. As critical talent becomes increasingly scarce, personnel costs will increase and companies will need to become more effective at hiring, developing, and retaining qualified people.
In Turkey, the situation is vice versa. The demographic transition has meant a rapid increase in the working age population over the last 20 years. While the growth rate of the working age population peaked over the 1980–2000 period, population dynamics are very slow and the share of the working age population is projected to grow till 2040, implying that the challenge of job creation will remain pertinent. The large working age population is an opportunity to generate growth, but if these people are not employed, the future bulge in the retired population will have to be supported from lower levels of per capita income.
In terms of personnel costs, Turkey appears to remain internationally competitive in the following decade. While manufacturing labor cost per unit value added has risen from 0.21 in 1995 to 0.27 in 2004, it is still lower than in Mexico and Korea. The same conclusion is valid in service sector too.
According to the findings of CIPD and Boston Consulting Group (BCG) surveys, one of the most dominant issues to be managed by HR in the following decade is work-life balance of employees. There is growing recognition that there is a definite link between the work environment and the health and well-being of its employees. Further, employers are now recognizing the connection between employee health and the bottom line.
ROLE OF HR
HR departments have begun shifting their attention to other parts of the company to help improve business and workforce performance in all parts of the company. This new strategic role requires new HR capabilities, services, and solutions. HR is expected to deliver value in areas like organizational effectiveness, talent management, change management, leadership development, succession planning, merger integration, strategic compensation. In order to focus and tackle these more strategic issues, HR departments are trying to eliminate administrative / operative parts of the jobs under its responsibility by employing shared services, outsourcing, and self-service practices.
Global companies have been increasingly outsourcing administrative side of their HR services due to following reasons:
- Cost reduction – economies of scale, automation and process improvement, especially for transactional work
- Focus – allows HR to allocate time to strategic, not transactional, concerns
- Regulatory compliance – minimize or transfer legal risk to the outsourcer and obtain specialized regulatory expertise.
- Access to best technologies – mutual benefits to ensure technology is continually upgraded
- No available internal resources – provides an HR capability for a company that does not have one, cannot staff it, or cannot afford a full-time resource, but has reached a size and complexity where expertise is required
IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY
Eventually technology is going to eliminate most HR jobs as they exist today. Which is another reason for HR professionals to become more strategic.
Technology, with all its self-service and anytime-anywhere communications capabilities, coupled with outsourcing, guarantees there will be fewer HR people in corporations.
Technology continues to effect us profoundly, both in our personal lives and in the workplace, and it will continue to evolve. While most of its impact has been overwhelmingly progressive and positive, there are some downsides to its effect on our personal and work lives. Cell phones, email, messaging and Blackberry-type devices have blurred the lines between worklife and homelife. Now we seem to be always on call, always reachable – in our cars, in the air, at home – virtually everywhere. To today’s young professionals computers, PDAs, cell phones, etc. have become appendages, keeping them constantly connected.
Weblogs or blogs are favoured by this group so companies cannot afford to ignore their use or existence. The blogosphere is doubling in size about once every five months. Employers need to develop a strategy around blogging. Negative blogs will be able to destroy a company’s reputation.
We’ve entered the century of the employee and technology has to respond. CRM or customer relationship management is giving way to ERM – employee relationship management. Employee self-service has become as important as customer self-service. Customized and personalized content will be king. Employees can self-manage activities previously handled by human resource professionals. This is a cost-saving and time-saving benefit to organizations and it frees the HR practitioners to focus on more strategic issues. But more importantly, it is a fundamental expectation of Gen Y’s and Gen X’s.
Technology that protects the privacy and security of HR data is more important than ever…but more on that later.
It’s important that we continue to embrace technology and keep our eyes on new advances that may bring even better communication and collaboration tools. Technology helps people connect within the work environment regardless of time and place. It fuels the potential for increased productivity and creativity. Today’s virtual workers and flexible work arrangements are made possible through communication technology. Organizations can be physically local, yet virtually global.
Organizations are looking for cross-border and multinational HR solutions that provide a single HR database that gives them access to real-time information on their workforce – information that will aid in their strategic decision-making. They are looking for an HR solutions framework that will enable the management of employees from hire-to-retire.
One of the scarcest capabilities, now and for the foreseeable future, is leadership. As organizations, their customers, their employees and their environment become more global, more complex, more competitive and more subject to rapid and radical change, the competency requirements for successful leadership are increasing exponentially. Today, most organizations acknowledge that they currently have a shortage of leadership talent or bench strength.
Since leadership is less definable, leadership capabilities are more difficult to build or transmit.
An emerging trend in North American executive development is ‘Action Learning’ – which has been well established in Europe for many years. It involves assigning groups of executives, with diverse backgrounds, to work on issues of strategic interest to their organization – with a facilitator to keep them on track and provide feedback. The advantage of Action Learning is that it engages leaders and potential leaders in real work and a real work environment rather than a simulation.
Part of fostering leadership is encouraging and rewarding risk-taking. It is also giving these leaders, wherever they are in the organization, the opportunity to contribute to the development of the corporate strategies and plans. Leadership comes with empowerment – employees can’t be leaders unless they have the power to take risks, make decisions, innovate and lead.
THE FUTURE OF HR IN EUROPE AND GLOBALLY
According to CIPD, challenges of HR in the future will be to
- get started on designing a usable armoury of human capital metrics
- better measure the effectiveness of HR policies and the HR contribution
- obtain greater value for money from reward budgets
- improve recruitment and retention practices without increasing costs
- ensure redundancy practice is consistent with anti-age discrimination legislation
- shift the balance of training activity from programme delivery to supporting and facilitating the learning process in a way that develops organisational talent
- more effectively reorganise working methods and help line managers get better at delivering on a ‘smart work’ people management agenda
- raise the standards of employee communication, involvement and engagement by means of web-assisted interactive technologies.
According to a BCG survey applied to 1,355 executives in 27 European countries, the key challenges identified were
- managing talent,
- managing demographics,
- the need to become learning organisations,
- managing work–life balance and
- managing change and cultural transformation.
However, the BCG survey finds that fewer than one in three (30%) of responding executives said that they had begun to tackle all these challenges.